Nécessité de découper des tubes de façon industrielle, avec un design très élaboré et des contraintes de conception compliquées ? Optez pour la découpe laser ! Cette technologie de pointe présente de nombreuses possibilités. Une machine de découpe laser tube permet ainsi de réaliser notamment des ouvertures intérieures infaisables avec des systèmes de production plus traditionnels (perçage, sciage, fraisage…). Elle peut alors être utilisée dans de multiples domaines d’activités très divers. La diversité des matières pouvant être travaillées est très large : tubes ronds, carrés ou rectangulaires, plats, profilés, ouverts en forme de U, de L ou d’une autre forme.

C’est toute la gamme des aciers (aluminium, cuivre, acier inoxydable…) qui peut être usinée grâce à une machine de découpe laser tube. Quels sont donc les critères à considérer avant d’investir dans une machine de découpe laser tube ?

Pièces découpées avec une machine découpe laser tube : perte de précision

Deux éléments décisifs entrent en jeu dans cette imprécision :

  • Il existe un effet de “flèche” car un tube ou un profilé n’est jamais totalement droit. Ainsi, plus le diamètre ou les dimensions des tubes et profilés sont petits, plus cet effet augmente. C’est alors que pendant la découpe, il est fort laborieux d’usiner un tube tout en garantissant la bonne position des ouvertures, tout particulièrement en comparaison aux autres formes découpées. Pour y remédier, il faut opter pour une machine découpe laser tube doté d’un dispositif de “scanning laser” afin de déterminer la flèche du tube et rectifier de cette façon, la ligne tracée par la tête laser de la machine. La tête laser pourra ainsi mieux se placer dans une position précise en fonction de cet effet “flèche”. En permettant de calculer instantanément, le “scanning” n’occasionne aucune perte de productivité par rapport à des dispositifs avec palpeur mécanique nécessitant un temps de palpation puis d’adaptation des réglages par l’opérateur. Plus le diamètre des tubes est petit, plus il est important de posséder une machine découpe laser tube équipée du système de “scanning”.
  • Pendant la phase de découpe, le tube qui avance a tendance à altérer la précision de la découpe. Pour retrouver cette précision, il faudrait différencier le processus de déplacement du tube de celui de la découpe laser. Il faut alors opérer un choix entre qualité et productivité. C’est une décision qui se négocie en fonction des attendus de production et du niveau de tolérance demandée.

Vitesse et productivité totale des machines découpe laser tubes et profilés 

Si la vitesse de découpe des tubes et profilés est un élément important, elle ne doit pas pour autant gêner la productivité totale de l’équipement. En effet, lorsque l’on exécute des lots, le temps de réglage de la machine découpe laser tube peut nuire de manière très importante à la productivité. C’est particulièrement le cas pour les industriels oeuvrant sur de petites ou moyennes séries. Afin de chiffrer la performance d’une machine de découpe laser tube, il est intéressant d’étudier le rapport entre le temps de fonctionnement de la tête de découpe et le temps total de l’opération. 

Les temps de réglages et de manipulations d’une machine de découpe laser tube

Pour produire des lots de petites ou moyennes séries, il est primordial de pouvoir maximiser les temps de réglage. Aussi, c’est eux qui vont prendre plus de temps que la découpe elle-même. Il faut alors pouvoir automatiser ces temps de préparation et de lancement des ordres de fabrication en production. 

Le débit de production et la rationalisation du secteur d’établissement de la/les machine(s) découpe laser tube

L’agencement de l’atelier et le manque d’espace peut amener l’industriel à être dérangé par une configuration fixe de la machine. La possibilité d’intervertir la zone de chargement/déchargement permet alors quelques fois d’optimiser les flux de production.

Avec un îlot de plusieurs machines, placer en miroir les découpes laser offre une gestion optimisée de deux machines dans un même espace. Cela permet ainsi à un seul opérateur de réussir à manier de manière simultanée les deux équipements.

En conclusion, il est important avant d’investir dans une machine de découpe laser tube de se poser les bonnes questions :

  • Quels diamètres, tailles, formes, épaisseurs des tubes à produire ?
  • Quels types et quelles tailles de production ?
  • De quelle manière agencer l’atelier et les flux de production ?
  • Quelles sont les attentes sur la qualité et les finitions des tubes réalisés ?
  • Est-ce que la machine découpe laser tube doit s’intercaler avant avec un logiciel de conception ?
  • Sur quels marchés et quels clients va se développer l’activité ? Quelles sont les cibles ?

Cet article a 6 commentaires

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